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Roman Gods and Goddesses

Shalu Bhatti
The Roman civilization has been one of the most powerful civilizations in history. There are many beliefs that played a vital role in making them the dominant rulers. Information on the Roman gods and goddesses are given next.
The Romans believed in various deities, which is quite obvious from their mythology! There is a unique mixture of various cultures when it comes to the emergence of their gods and goddesses. The entire collection of these, is known as the Pantheon.
There is a great influence of Latin and Greek culture, as they too had pantheons of their own. This is the reason why the Roman and Greek gods are the same divinities with different names.

Some Famous Roman Divinities

The Romans had a god or goddess for every possible power or trait that existed in the world―war, love, peace, wealth, and so on. Roman mythology shows evidence of how strongly they believed in these immortals for their well-being and prosperity. Some of them are mentioned as under.
Mars (Ares in Greek)
Mars is the famous god of war. He is also known to be the god of terror, anger, courage, and revenge. He is the son of the Roman god and goddess Jupiter and Juno. In fact, he is also known as the father of Rome, as Romulus, who founded Rome, was his son. His festival is celebrated in the month of March and October.
Apollo is god of sun, music, medicine, truth, light. He is the son of Jupiter and Leto, and known to drive the sun across the sky daily, with the help of his chariot driven by four horses. He is also an archer and plays a golden lyre. The crow is known to be his bird, the dolphin is said to be his animal, and the laurel tree is known to be his tree.
Jupiter (Zeus in Greek)
Jupiter is said to be the most powerful god of sky, thunder, and lightning. Being the patron god of Rome, the Romans made his temple as the official place wherein all the business affairs and religious sacrifices took place. He is the son of the Roman god Saturn.
Juno (Hera in Greek)
Juno is sister and wife of Jupiter, known as 'Queen of Gods'. She protects the Roman state and guards their finances. The month 'June' is named after her. Major festivals named Matronalia and Nonae Caprotinae are celebrated in the month of March and July in her honor. She is also the mother of Mars, Vulcan, and Juventas.
Vulcan (Hephaestus in Greek)
Vulcan is the god of fire, craftsmanship, and blacksmiths. It is said that his force is situated under Mount Etna where he forges weapons for heroes and other gods.
Venus (Aphrodite in Greek)
Venus is the goddess of love and beauty, also called the goddess of gardens and vineyards. Vinalia Rustica is observed in her honor on August 18. There is another of her festival known as Veneralia, which is celebrated on April 11. A festival named Vinalia Priora is celebrated for the opening of her temples on April 23.
Neptune ( Poseidon in Greek)
Neptune is the god of sea and horses. He is also the brother of the Roman gods Pluto, Jupiter, and Juno. He is the owner of the trident and his festival called Neptunalia is celebrated on July 23.
Ceres (Demeter in Greek)
Ceres is the 'Roman Corn Goddess' who governs crops, agriculture, grains, civilization, a mother's love. The daughter of Saturn and Ops, Ceres protects a woman, marriage, and motherhood, as she is worshiped for fertility. Her festival is known as Cerealia.
Mercury (Hermes in Greek)
Mercury is the god of profits, merchants, trade, and travelers. His symbol is a staff with two interlinked snakes known as the Caduceus and a purse to depict his interrelation of commerce and trade. His festival, Mercuralia is celebrated on May 15, where merchants go to his well near Porta Capena and sprinkle their heads and merchandise with it's water.
Minerva (Athena in Greek)
She is the goddess of wisdom, learning, and arts, with an owl as her symbol. She is the daughter of Jupiter and protects industry and education. Her main festival is known as the Quinquatria, celebrated from March 19 to March 23.
Diana (Artemis in Greek)
Diana is the goddess of hunting, also famously known as the 'Moon Goddess'. She is known for her athletic grace, beauty, courage, strength, and her hunting skills. As a huntress, she always possesses a bow and an arrow, and is accompanied by a hunting dog.
Bacchus (Dionysus in Greek)
He is the popular god of wine, partying, and ecstasy. He is the son of Jupiter and inspires people to worship joyfully in ecstasy. He is also known as the god of truth and sensual pleasures.
Vesta (Hestia in Greek)
Vesta is the goddess of fire, hearth, and home. Her temple had a burning flame which was considered as the 'Hearth of Rome'. The priests had to make sure that the flame never went out. She is the daughter of Saturn and Ops. Her festival, known as the Vestalia, is celebrated on June 7. An ass is considered to be her sacred animal.
The Romans believed that these gods and goddesses had the power to influence their lives to a great extent, and therefore they worshiped them. Their power, traits, and the fact that they are considered as the ultimate source of help and protection, just depicts their importance among the believers.